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Based on this background, understanding the crustal strain field around the Ishikari fault zone with high spatiotemporal resolution is important for earthquake risk assessment. Sagiya et al. (2000) discussed the comprehensive strain field of the region but only analyzed the period between 1997 and 2000. On the other hand, we are able to use an increasing number of GNSS sites and have access to longer periods of data. Therefore, we can conduct a more detailed analysis of the strain field surrounding this area.
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Horizontal velocity and strain distribution using same GNSS sites in (a) period 1 and (b) period 2. Figure S2. Coseismic strain field at the 2018 Eastern Iburi earthquake. (a) Observed displacement from GEONET (i.e., the difference between averaged three-day coordinates before and after the event) and the corresponding strain field. (b) Theoretical displacement estimated using data from GSI (2018b) and the corresponding strain field.
Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method. The whole genome of the S. Typhimurium isolates was analyzed using Illumina technology and compared with 20 isolates of S. Typhimurium for which the ST has been deposited in a global MLST database.The ResFinder Web server was used to find the antibiotic resistance genes from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. For comparative genomics, publicly available complete and draft genomes of different S. Typhimurium laboratory-adapted strains were downloaded from GenBank.
Multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium is a common cause of invasive NTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa [7, 8]. In this study, the sequenced strains of S. Typhimurium ST313 were from the bacteria isolated from the feces of patients with diarrhea and from slaughtered poultry. This is the first study reporting finding of ST313 from Burkina Faso, but it has been reported from several other sub-Saharan countries such as Malawi, Kenya, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo [9,10,11,12]. Strain D23580 from Malawi has served as a representative of the lineage presently causing an epidemic in Africa [3, 13]. In addition, this strain was the only ST313 among the 20 S. Typhimurium strains downloaded from the S. enterica MLST database and was isolated from a case of invasive NTS disease in Malawi . The dominant sequence type from the 20 strains in MLST database was ST19 (60%), to which most of the sequenced strains isolated from Europe and America belong.
Engrailed-1 (En-1) is a homeodomain protein expressed specifically at the mid-hindbrain junction of the early somite stage embryo, as well as in a number of sites later in embryogenesis. Figure 4 shows an experiment in which R26R-YFP mice were crossed with a strain of mice in which Cre was knocked into the En-1 locus , resulting in the expression of YFP specifically at the mid-hindbrain junction in an E8.5 embryo. For comparison, we also crossed the En-1/Cre mice with the original R26R lacZ allele , resulting in lacZ expression in the same region at E8.5 (Fig 4C).